Wearables/IOT devices: Challenges and solutions to integration of miniature antennas in close proximity to the human body

In this paper, we discuss three challenges associated with antenna integration in platforms such as wearables and IoT. We explore the use PCB-integrated antenna designs in place of chip antennas, and the sensitivity of antenna radiation efficiency to hand model proximity as in a smartwatch usage scenario. Finally we showcase, using an active card reader, the RFI effect of shield proximity to a noisy active component.